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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Cancer is one of the most significant and dangerous health issues for people. Health improvement and mortality depend on the level of the condition. Among the different types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the fatal versions.

It primarily affects females between 20 and 39 years of age, and rare occurrences happen in male patients.

The potential of death is around 1 out of 38 for breast cancer. With modern medicine and different treatment methods, the breast cancer rate has decreased by approximately 40%. It is essential to catch the condition early for proper treatment.

Everything You Need to Know About Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer | Symptoms | Causes | Diagnosis | Treatment | Risk Factors | Prevention | Conclusion

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is a condition when the growth of cells starts increasing rapidly inside the breast, causing lumps. They can spread throughout the body or attack tissues in the surrounding areas. When they form big masses, they become tumors.

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Symptoms of Breast Cancer

The common symptoms patients with breast cancer notice are:

  • A thickening or lump in the breast, specifically in one of the breasts 
  • Changes in the breast skin, known as dimpling 
  • Transformation in the appearance, shape, or size of the breast 
  • Newly inverted nipple 
  • Pitting or redness of breast skin
  • Crusting, peeling, flaking, or scaling of the discolored skin area around the breast skin or nipple

Causes of Breast Cancer

Some of the common reasons for breast cancer are preventable, while some are just probable causes. It varies from patient to patient. 

  • Genetics 
  • Blood nourishing or estrogenic exposure 
  • High consumption of liquor 
  • Body weight growth suddenly
  • Growth of cancer cells from other origin points
  • Occupational hazards
  • Hormone treatments 
  • Exposure to radiation

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

There are particular types of methods that are useful for diagnosing the condition of breast cancer. Doctors can use one or more treatments at a time, depending on the cancer extent.

Diagnosis

There are particular types of methods that are useful for diagnosing the condition of breast cancer. Doctors can use one or more treatments at a time, depending on the cancer extent.

Mammogram

After noticing any lumps, the general physician would conduct a mammogram. It is a low-dose form of x-ray. They find any minor changes that a physical exam cannot find.

Physical examination

The first test is checking the breast of the patient physically after noticing abnormalities in the mammogram or lumps in the breast. They examine the breast region and the lymph nodes running above the arms/collar bone. Plus, they would ask for family and individual medical history.

Biopsy

Doctors can surgically remove some tissue parts from the breast during a biopsy procedure. The pathologist studies the tissue for cancer cells microscopically afterward.

Ultrasound

After the second mammogram test, the doctor would get an ultrasound. This method uses soundwaves to showcase the patient’s breast image digitally.

More scans

Besides the mentioned tests, the doctor can run additional scans like MRI or CT scan.

Treatment of Breast Cancer

The treatment plans differ as per the severity of the condition or spread of the cancer cells. 

Staging

During this process, the oncologist checks the cancer size and the extent of its spread to underarm lymph nodes. They conduct CT scans of the liver, chest, and bones to check for excess cancer spread. 

Surgery 

Surgeons cut out the cancerous localized breast cancer from the breast or affected lymph node. The process is called mastectomy if they remove the entire breast, while partial breast part removal is called a lumpectomy. Doctors recommend radiotherapy after the latter type only. 

Radiotherapy 

Also known as radiation therapy, this is done as a secondary procedure after a cancer lumpectomy. It removes undetected cancer cells and is suitable if surgeons remove lymph nodes from the underarm region. This method is also suitable after mastectomy; in both cases, only if the possibility of cancer cells returning is possible. 

Breast reconstruction 

After the surgery for breast part removal, doctors perform the breast reconstruction/prosthesis process for breast shape restoration. Under the reconstruction method, surgeons surgically create a new breast, while the prosthesis process involves synthetic breast wear. 

Chemotherapy 

This method uses chemical substances to shrink cancer prior to the surgery. Chemotherapy is suitable if there is a more advanced cancer. In the case of a HER2-positive cancer patient, hormone therapy would not work. This is a suitable alternative. 

Hormone therapy 

This process works with drugs that decrease the female hormone levels inside the body. The hormone therapy slows down or stops the hormone receptor growth that handles positive cancer cells. This works for specific breast cancer types, ages, and pre-menopause. 

Targeted therapy 

During targeted therapy, the drugs affect specific targets within the cancer cells. This method is suitable for patients with HER2-positive cancer in the breast only. 

Palliative care 

Palliative care is another suitable treatment for breast cancer patients. This focuses on improving a patient’s quality of life and targets specific symptoms of breast cancer. It slows the movement of cancerous cells, reduces pain, and controls other symptoms. To note, this method works with other methods. It is generally used in more advanced cancer where surgery/chemotherapy is not helpful.

Risk Factors of Breast Cancer

Particular conditions show that a person is at a higher risk of breast cancer. However, these risk factors do not guarantee the condition for all people. 

  • Cancer in the breast is more prevalent among women. 
  • As you grow older, the risk for breast cancer increases. 
  • People who had breast cancer once are at risk.
  • Patients who had a biopsy that detected atypical hyperplasia or LCIS have a higher risk.
  • Specific genetic mutations, like BRCA2 or BRCA1, from the father or mother can increase the potential for cancer growth. 
  • If a family member has breast cancer, the next generation has a risk.
  • Getting pregnant at an older age or after menopause are notable times. 
  • Girls whose menstruation cycle started before 12 years of age have a risk. 
  • Obesity or extra alcohol consumption increases the risk. 
  • Exposure to radiation or consumption of hormone therapy medications also is a risk factor.

How to Prevent?

You cannot completely prevent the onset of breast cancer. However, it is possible to reduce cancer risk with some steps. 

  • Follow a healthier lifestyle and diet, adding a lot of vegetables and fruits 
  • Avoid drinking too much alcohol 
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain a suitable body mass index

If, after menopause, you are planning to get hormone replacement therapy, you should discuss your options with the doctor. If your family history shows breast cancer, you should go for hormone treatments with tamoxifen under the doctor’s recommendation and supervision. The procedure stretches for 5 years. 

You can get a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy if you are at a high breast cancer risk because of genetic mutations. 

Conclusion

The exact causes of breast cancer are not prominent but leading a healthier lifestyle can reduce the risk. Contact your doctor if you see the symptoms and get tests as soon as possible. The survival rate is higher for early diagnosis.

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Gunjan IVF World in Indirapuram, Ghaziabad is the best hospital for surrogacy and ivf services in Delhi-NCR. Dr. Gunjan Gupta is founder and director of Gunjan IVF World. Gunjan IVF is the best ivf center in Indirapuram , Ghaziabad. Treatments at affordable prices.

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