What is Azoospermia?
Azoospermia, which indicates ZERO SPERM COUNT is an infertility issue that affects Only 1 percent of all men and 15 percent of infertile males.
In a normal body of a man, sperms are produced in the testicles and travel through the reproductive tract. After reaching the reproductive tract, the sperms mixes with the fluid produced by prostate and seminal vesicles and that makes up semen. Now, a man who has azoospermia has no production of sperm in the testicles. The semen in such men only contains fluid in it. This condition is referred to as no sperm count.
Symptoms of Azoospermia
When one has azoospermia, he may not know it until his wife is not being able to conceive for a long time and he consults a fertility clinic. An azoospermic male usually has normal sexual functions and no ejaculatory dysfunction. In this case, only when you visit a fertility clinic and get the semen analysis test done, you may find out that you have azoospermia. Here the semen is examined under high magnification microscope to look for the sperm count. A person can be confirmed as azoospermic only once 2 semen samples have been examined and both show zero sperm count. This condition generally has no symptoms.
In other cases, you might see some symptoms based on hormonal imbalances or some genetic chromosomal conditions that are underlying. Some signs and symptoms may include:
- Erectile dysfunction
- Swelling, and discomfort in the testicle area
- Low sex drive
- Facial and body hair loss
Types of Azoospermia
Azoospermia can be divided into three types which are:
- Obstructive Azoospermia: It is a condition in which there is a production of sperms in the testicles but due to a blockage in the reproductive tract, the sperms cannot exit the body. This blockage can be found in vas deferens, epididymis, or in any other part of the reproductive tract. In this case, you ejaculate and there is semen, but due to the blockage, there is no measurable number of sperms in the semen.
- Nonobstructive Azoospermia: It is a condition in which there is poor or no production of sperms in the testicles. This can be a result of some defects in the structure or functions of the testicles or defect at the level of pituitary in the brain.
Causes of Azoospermia
Different causes of azoospermia depend upon the type of azoospermia. Some of the causes are:
1. Pretesticular Causes
Here the tests are normal, but they are not able to produce sperm. It may be because of low hormone levels example in Kallmann syndrome or chemotherapy of the brain. This type is uncommon.
2. Testicular Causes
- Infection in your reproductive organs, for example epididymitis and urethritis.
- Absent testis( Anorchia) or non-descended testes(Cryptorchidism)
- Viral infections as mumps can cause orchitis, leading to swelling of one or both testicles.
- Groin injury example due to cricket ball, rugby or football etc.
- Cancer or its treatments, like radiation or chemotherapy.
- Surgery in the groin area.
- Genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter’s syndrome, Y chromosome deletion and Cystic fibrosis, Sertoli only Cell Syndrome among a few common ones.
3. Kallmann syndrome
Here testes produce sperms normally but there is a traffic jam which is why the sperms cannot come out of the penis due to blocked reproductive tract. This is called obstructive azoospermia. One thing to note is that following things are RESPONSIBLE FOR 40% CASES OF AZOOSPERMIA.
- Acquired causes as infections, injury or surgery.
- A vasectomy
- Retrograde ejaculation: In this condition semen goes into the urinary bladder instead of coming out of the penis during an orgasm.
Treatment of Azoospermia
Once azoospermia has been diagnosed the doctor tries to ascertain the cause. This may involve a physical examination, a blood test to check hormone levels and scrotal ultrasound if required. Genetic tests may be required especially if there is no obstruction.
Now, the treatment of azoospermia also depends upon its type. Obstructive Azoospermia can be treated with the help of the reconstruction or reconnection of the tubes that are blocked by the help of a surgery. By doing so the passage of the sperms will be done automatically. Another technique is to do sperm retrieval which can be done by aspiration by a fine needle from testes( PESA) or by biopsy (TESE: surgical extraction of sperm). These sperms can then be frozen and used for conceiving by IVF ICSI. Sperm retrieval may also be beneficial in non-obstructive azoospermia if sperms are being produced by testes.
So don’t worry, majority of the time despite azoospermia you can still become a father by opting for advanced reproductive techniques like IVF or ICSI. There are a lot of azoospermic patient that became father of their own biological child.
It’s always the word of mouth that’s the best advice
Rohit Krishna Gupta
Had a great experience with Dr. Gunjan. We visited the clinic as we had some queries regarding the conception process. Dr. Gunjan listened to the queries and answered all those with patience. And we had good news at the next consultation itself. Dr. Gunjan is very experienced, is soft-spoken, and very diligent with the process. Highly recommended!
Know the Expert before you visit our clinic
A team of Specialists working together as a team with a single Goal: Patient Satisfaction
Dr. Gunjan Gupta Govil
MRCOG(UK), MD(Gynae) – Founder & CEO
She is a Gynaecologist with specialization in IVF, Infertility & Laparoscopy specialist doctor and has close to 2 decades of experience in treating Infertility, performing Gynae Laparoscopy (Keyhole Surgeries) & Handing high-risk Pregnancies. She is a noted speaker in National and International level conferences and has also chaired various sessions on Infertility
- 86% (218 Votes)
- 86% (218 Votes)
- 86% (218 Votes)
Dr. Pradyot Kumar
Dr. Pradyot Kumar is the founder and CEO of Gunjan IVF World. He is a Neurosurgeon with specialization
(20+ years of experience)
Mr. Gaurav Singhai
Co-Founder & COO
He has 15 years of Managerial Experience from various National & International Organizations like TCS, Fiserv & Sopra Steria. He has lived and worked with various MNCs in the US, UK, France & The Netherlands and gained immense experience and skills which he now contributes to Gunjan’s IVF World assiduously.
Dr. Abhishek Parihar
He is a dedicated & experienced Gynaecologist offering comprehensive fertility practice oriented towards fertility treatment. He has vast experience in dealing with infertile couples and providing health care assistance to them during course of their treatment.
He is a highly experienced and successful Embryologist with more than 10 years of experience in IVF. He has done M.Sc. in Biotechnology from MIMS, Jaipur. He has done more than 4000 IVFs and 3000+ ICSI cases till date.)
Dr. Arshi khan
She is another proud member of our medical team & while serving as a RMO for the past few years, she assists Dr. Gunjan during her session with various patients. Moreover, She is a graduate in BUMS and aspire to achieve greater heights in her career in the future.
Ms. Nivedita Rai
She is the Head Counselor at Gunjan IVF world who counsels and coordinates with our patients during the course of their treatment. Patients hold a very high regard for her. She has pursued her MBA from IMT Ghaziabad & been a part of our Gunjan IVF world Family since past many years.
We not just treat our patient, we also guide them throughout all medical terms and their problems
Do you know the success rate of pregnancy with the IUI procedures ranges from 15% to 20% per cycle? Yes, this is true. IUI, which is Intrauterine insemination, is a kind of artificial insemination that helps in treating infertility issues. This a quick process in which the pre-selected sperm is directly injected into your uterus or womb.
IUI or Intrauterine insemination is a less invasive procedure when compared to IVF or In vitro fertilization. Couples get many benefits from this procedure as the chances of pregnancy increase a lot because of IUI.
The reasons for an unsuccessful implantation are very uncommon and rare as well. Blastocyst provides a greater chance of becoming pregnant therefore the procedure is handled properly as well.
Before jumping to the immediate question first let’s have a small brief of what is blastocyst transfer. Blastocyst transfer is the transfer of embryos that have achieved a higher stage of development.
Normally in natural pregnancy, when a period cycle starts, an egg gets matured in the ovaries. When it becomes 18-20 mm then it is released at that time. After a physical relationship between a couple, the sperms fertilize this mature egg in the fallopian tube. Once the fertilization occurs, this fertilized egg converts into an embryo and sticks to the uterus that causes pregnancy.
If we talk about the term “Secondary Infertility” it generally refers to a situation when a woman is going through certain infertility issues even after carrying a baby already in her life. Moreover, this type of Infertility results in almost 50 percent of total infertility cases in women around the world. This is most common in couples who think of having a baby in their late 30s and 40s.
Egg freezing, medically known as human oocyte cryopreservation. It is an effective procedure allows the woman to go against the biological clock. It enables women to postpone pregnancy to a later date. In this phenomenon, eggs extracted, frozen and stored. The success rate of the procedure depends on the age of the woman and ranges from approximately 14% to 30%.