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Many factors can affect natural pregnancy chances, and one such factor is azoospermia. It is hard for a woman to get pregnant naturally if her husband has azoospermia (absence of sperm in the semen). However, when conventional treatment cannot resolve an infertility issue, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) provides several options for attaining pregnancy via IVF operations, among other methods.

If you have azoospermia and wish to complete your family, ART methods can help you. Keep reading to know about the same.

What is the most common cause of azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a male infertility issue where sperm are absent in the semen. In other words, it indicates zero sperm count. The types of azoospermia and the underlying causes of azoospermia are intricately intertwined. For lack of a better term, blockages or non-obstructive causes may be at the foundation of the issue.

Obstructions in the vas deferens, epididymis, or ejaculatory ducts (these structures are involved in the passage of sperm from testis to outside) are the most common causes of azoospermia, accounting for more than half of all cases. Several factors may cause blockages in these areas.

  • Vas deferens, epididymis, or ejaculatory ducts have been traumatized or injured.
  • Infections
  • Inflammation
  • Surgical procedures in the pelvic region in the past
  • The formation of a cyst
  • If you have undergone vasectomy: A vasectomy is a surgical planned permanent contraceptive procedure in which the vas deferens are cut or clamped to prevent the flow of sperm.
  • A cystic fibrosis gene mutation causes the vas deferens to either not form or develop improperly, resulting in the accumulation of viscous secretions in the vas deferens, which causes the flow of semen to become obstructed.

Non-obstructive variables that contribute to azoospermia include:

  • Genetic causes: a variety of genetic abnormalities can cause Infertility, including:
  • Kallmann syndrome: This is a condition characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. This disorder is a form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is a condition resulting from a lack of production of certain hormones that direct sexual development. It’s a genetic (inherited) condition and can lead to infertility if left untreated.
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome: An additional X chromosome is carried by a guy (making his chromosomal makeup XXY instead of XY). This syndrome is associated with infertility, lack of sexual or physical maturity and learning issues.
  • Y chromosome deletion: Infertility is caused by the absence of critical regions of genes on the Y chromosome (the male chromosome) that are crucial for sperm production.
  •  Hormone imbalances and endocrine diseases include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and androgen resistance.
  • Problems with ejaculation, such as retrograde ejaculation, in which the sperm enters the bladder.
  • Testicular causes include:
      • Anorchia (The testicles are absent)
      • Cryptorchidism (The testicles have not yet entered the scrotum)
      • Sertoli cell-only syndrome (The testicles cannot create viable sperm cells)
      • Spermatogenic Suspension (The testicles are incapable of producing thoroughly developed sperm cells)
      • Mumps orchitis (Mumps in late puberty causes swollen testicles)
      • Testicular torsion
      • Tumors
      • Certain drugs might cause sperm production problems.
      • Radiation therapy
      • Diabetes, cirrhosis, and renal failure are examples of diseases
      • Varicocele (Sperm production is hampered by dilated or enlarged veins emanating from the testicle).

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Which treatment is best for azoospermia?

The underlying cause of azoospermia affects the therapy. Genetic tests and counseling are often required to identify and treat azoospermia. The following are some examples of therapy alternatives:

  • It is possible to have surgery to clear blocked tubes or reconstruct and join aberrant or never formed tubes if a blockage causes your azoospermia.
  • If insufficient hormone production is the primary cause, hormone treatment may be administered to treat the condition. Several hormones are available, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), clomiphene, anastrozole, and letrozole.
  • The afflicted veins may be split up surgically while the surrounding tissues remain intact if a varicocele produces reduced sperm production due to the condition.
  • Following a thorough biopsy of the testicle, sperm may be retrieved directly from the testicle in specific individuals.

Can I get Pregnant with azoospermia?

Yes, even if your partner has azoospermia, you can still have a few chances to get pregnant with the help of ART methods like IVF, ICSI, etc.

A doctor specializing in infertility will provide recommendations based on the diagnostic results. A variety of factors may cause azoospermia means that treatment choices will vary depending on the cause.

FURTHER READING

Conclusion

Because the causes of azoospermia are different and treatment techniques are different, your doctor should be an infertility expert and have a thorough awareness of these aspects to give you the most effective treatment options. 

You need to consult a fertility specialist to know the best azoospermia treatment for you. You can maintain a healthy lifestyle, avoid drugs and alcohol to prevent azoospermia in the future.

 

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Dr. Gunjan Gupta Fertility and IVF Specialist in Delhi

Dr. Gunjan Gupta

Gynecologist and IVF specialist
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Dr. Gunjan Gupta is a Gynaecologist with a specialization in IVF, Infertility & Laparoscopy specialist doctor and has close to 2 decades of experience in : Treating Infertility, Performing Gynae Laparoscopy (Keyhole Surgeries) Handing high-risk Pregnancies. She is a Member of Royal College of Obs and Gynae (MRCOG) of UK and has been trained in Laparoscopy at EUDGES (France).

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