How Pregnancy Occurs?
In each menstrual cycle, the day period begins on day 2-3 the ovaries play a role in recruiting the eggs one of these eggs, grows and matures at the time of ovulation i.e on day 12-14, depending upon the menstrual cycle. Once it matures it releases. At that time the sperm gets fused with the egg in the fallopian tube and fertilizes and implants itself in the uterus, which results in pregnancy.
What is IVF?
In IVF or In Vitro Fertilization happens outside the body using medical techniques, which is called IVF pregnancy. Therefore it is also called test tube baby because in a way the baby is made outside the body or in the test tube.
IVF Process Start to Finish – Step by step
1. IVF tests & Medical & Physical Evaluation of Couple
The couple has to undergo certain IVF treatment evaluations. These are the blood test before IVF. IVF tests for Females: The female has to undergo several tests such as female hormonal tests, egg count and quality assessment, blood tests such as AMH, prolactin, thyroid & basic tests such as hemoglobin, sugar, etc. ultrasound is done to check the uterus. IVF tests for males: semen analysis or semen examination, sperm count, shape, and motility are checked.
2. Ovarian stimulation
After evaluation, the IVF Treatment starts from day 2-3. In Ovarian stimulation, injections of hormones are given for 9-12 days to make the eggs mature or make the follicles grow. This process involves ultrasound which is done on days 2-3 of the cycle, then after 5 days of stimulation, reassessment is made to check the progress or to make changes in the doses if necessary. Once the eggs are mature, the patient is given a Trigger Injection which is for the maturity of eggs. This is a very important injection.
3. Oocyte retrieval/egg pickup/Ovum Pick
After the 34-36 hours of trigger injection egg pickup is done. This is a daycare procedure. This is done under short general anesthesia and is a pain-free procedure. Egg pick-up is done by means of a fine needle which is passed under the guidance of ultrasound. Follicular fluid contents are removed using gentle suction that brings the egg along in the fluid. Once eggs reach the lab, the embryologist examines them. Mature eggs are transferred into a special culture medium/nutrient media, placed in an incubator.
The sperms are taken from the male partner. These sperms are washed and prepared. There are 2 ways these sperms are fertilized
- IVF– The embryologists puts the sperms along with eggs and leave them to their natural process of fertilization.
- ICSI-Sperms are manually fused with eggs. Helpful in case of low sperm count or motility.
It’s the embryologist’s choice of what procedure to go for based on the case. Once fertilization is done the embryos are placed inside the incubator and throughout the embryos are monitored. The day of pickup is known as Day 0.
5. Embryo transfer
Embryo transfer is performed after fertilization. It is a daycare procedure. Embryo Transfer is done on day 3 or 5. Day 5 embryos (blastocyst embryo) has the best implantation capacity and their success rate is good. On the day of embryo transfer, a silicone tube is placed in the best position inside the uterus, under the guidance of ultrasound, the embryos are inserted. Thereafter the patient is discharged.
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