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Do you know that 1 out 7 couples i.e. 15% of couples in India are facing Infertility and are unable to conceive despite trying? The infertility rate is increasing day by day. Do you want to know why some couples do not conceive? In this article, let’s understand the top 6 reasons or causes of Infertility in women and men. We will also discuss their solutions.

The infertility rate is increasing day by day due to increased stress, competitive work environment, hectic and fast-paced imbalanced lifestyle, urbanization, environmental toxins, delayed marriage, and prolonged family planning.

Reasons of Infertility in Female

1. Problems in Ovaries

    • PCOD – Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a common lifestyle-related disease in women which is aggravated by stress. PCOD can be controlled by weight loss and a healthy lifestyle. If required, laparoscopy can be done to puncture the cysts in the ovaries. The hormonal imbalance can be corrected by medicines also. Polycystic Ovarian Disease is one of the leading causes of infertility.
    • Premature Ovarian Failure: In some women, ovaries stop producing enough Estrogen and other hormones at a young age. As a result, the eggs do not develop resulting in infertility. In such cases, IVF with donor egg can be done to become a mother.

2. Blocked Fallopian Tubes

It’s a very common cause of infertility. Sometimes, one or both of the Fallopian Tubes of a woman are blocked. As a result, the egg cannot reach the Uterus and the fertilization with sperm doesn’t happen. The tubes can get blocked due to Endometriosis, TB in Uterus, or an Infection in the tubes. Blocked tubes can be opened by Laparoscopy. If the woman’s age is more than 30 years, then IVF is recommended.


3. Problems in Uterus

    • Tuberculosis in Uterus: In India, (Tuberculosis) TB is Uterus is very common. The TB bacteria infect the uterus and cause severe damage to other reproductive organs such as Tubes, Ovaries, Endometrium, etc. If left untreated, it may cause permanent Infertility. The Good News is that TB is Treatable and in many cases, the woman conceives during the treatment of TB.
    • Anomalies of Uterus: In some women, the shape of the uterus is malformed and is developed differently from most women. These anomalies result in no menstrual period for very long, or heavy bleeding during periods, repeated miscarriages, and Infertility. If you have conceived, the risk of miscarriage remains high. These are the different shapes of malformed uterus e.g. Bicornuate Uterus etc. In such cases, a surgical correction of the malformed uterus is recommended before proceeding with IVF treatment.
      Malformed Uterus.

4. Cervical Factors

If the Cervical mucus has Anti-Sperm antibodies that mistakenly kill sperm. They make it harder for the couple to have a baby. The solution is Intrauterine insemination (IUI) . In IUI, the sperms are injected directly inside the uterus so that sperms can overcome the barrier of Cervical mucus.

5. Hormonal Imbalance

Hormonal Imbalance: The imbalance of female reproductive organs esp. Thyroid and Prolactin can also cause Infertility.

    • Hyperprolactinemia: Prolactin is produced by the Pituitary Gland of the brain. Excessive Prolactin results in Irregular periods, unwanted milky discharge from breasts and interferes with the function of ovaries, and Infertility. This condition can be treated with medicines.
    • Thyroid Problems: Low levels of Thyroid hormone interfere with the release of an egg from the ovary and can cause Infertility. The thyroid levels can be brought to normal by medicines.

6. Low or Nil Sperm Count

This condition is called Azoospermia. Males are found to be responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases. But, there is hope. Even if the sperm count is 1 million/ml (Normally it’s around 50-60 million/ml), IVF with ICSI can make you a father.


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About Author

Dr. Gunjan Gupta Fertility and IVF Specialist in Delhi

Dr. Gunjan Gupta

Gynecologist and IVF specialist
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Dr. Gunjan Gupta is a Gynaecologist with a specialization in IVF, Infertility & Laparoscopy specialist doctor and has close to 2 decades of experience in : Treating Infertility, Performing Gynae Laparoscopy (Keyhole Surgeries) Handing high-risk Pregnancies. She is a Member of Royal College of Obs and Gynae (MRCOG) of UK and has been trained in Laparoscopy at EUDGES (France).

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